Cognitive Training May Benefit Older People Over the Long Term

Cognitive Training May Benefit Older People Over the Long Term

 

 

Cognitive training can benefit seniors up to a decade after they’ve received the training, a study reported in the Journal of the American Geriatrics Society has found. The study was headed by George Rebok, Ph.D., a professor at the Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health.
The study cohort included approximately 2,800 individuals with an average age of 74 at the start of the study. Half of the subjects were randomized to a training group and the other half to a control group. All subjects were community-dwelling adults who did not show signs of significant cognitive decline. The training group received training sessions in reasoning, information-processing speed, and memory—domains that show declines with aging. The training produced significant improvements in all three cognitive areas. Ten years later, most of the cognitively trained subjects were still at or above their baseline level in reasoning and speed processing; this was not the case for the controls, in whom deterioration of these cognitive functions was seen at the 10-year follow-up. However, the memory improvements that the training group had initially made were not sustained a decade later.
“One of the most common questions asked by our older patients is, ‘What can I do to prevent memory loss?’ ” Art Walaszek, M.D., an associate professor of psychiatry at the University of Wisconsin and a geriatric psychiatrist, noted in an interview with Psychiatric News. “This study, impressive for its large sample size and long-term follow-up, helps answer this question…. It appears that cognitive training may help older adults with their reasoning skills, processing speed, and activities of daily living, but not with memory. This raises the intriguing possibility that, though memory decline may be difficult to avoid, older adults may be able to develop other cognitive skills in order to maintain their functioning.”

Cognitive Function May Predict Development of Chronic Pain, New Study Finds

Cognitive Function May Predict Development of Chronic Pain, New Study Finds

 

 

Patients with deficits in attention, memory, or executive function might be at high risk of developing chronic pain after surgery or some other pain-inducing event. This is a major finding from a study published in Brain and headed by Nadine Attal, M.D., Ph.D., of the Ambroise Pare Hospital in Boulogne-Billancourt, France.
The study cohort included 189 subjects aged 18 to 85 who were about to undergo one of two operations—either knee replacement because of osteoarthritis or breast cancer surgery. The researchers measured attention, memory, and executive function in the subjects before surgery, then followed them for a year. Impairment in attention, memory, or executive function before surgery significantly predicted clinically meaningful pain six or 12 months after surgery in both groups of patients, even when the presence of anxiety, depression, or pain before surgery were considered.
“This is an interesting study,” Michael Clark, M.D., an associate professor of psychiatry and director of the Pain Treatment Program at Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, said in an interview with Psychiatric News. “I think that the determination of risk factors that predict the development of chronic pain is an important area…. [The results] highlight the need to take extra care in the management of acute pain for individuals with existing neurological disorders to decrease the risk of persistent pain after surgery. In addition, given that chronic pain management often focuses on improving coping skills, these results support the use of cognitive training to facilitate the development of more effective therapies for reaching functional goals in rehabilitation programs.”

JOB OPPORTUNITY FOR PSYCHOLOGISTS

Bahrain for early intervention has an opening for an enthusiastic, experienced Speech Language Therapist to join our SLP Team. The incumbent must have experience and a desire to work with moderate to severe developmentally disabled Autistic population.

The Speech Language Pathologist will be responsible for providing services on an individual and group basis in the classrooms with students 6 – 22. In addition the speech therapist will be responsible for implementing strategies to promote cognitive, academic communication and language, behavioral and social and physical development for the population being served. The therapist will have a small caseload within one or two schools.

Essential Functions Include:
Conduct screening and testing of students to determine goals Prepare assessment reports Actively participate in the development of the students’ Individualized Education Program (IEP) goals Consult with teachers on follow-through activities for students within their case load.
Observe and work directly with students either on an individual or group towards their communication goals.
Develop curriculum for student based on assessment of communication goals Modify the students’ program based on the periodic evaluations to help curve behaviors and promote communication goals Maintain students’ speech records Participate in staff development programs Meet with parents regarding their student’s progress as requested Desired Skills and Experience Minimum Qualifications:
BSC SPEECH AND LANGUAGE
At least 2 years of Experience with Autism and other developmental disabilities Must be able to understand the principles and techniques of language, speech and hearing services with emphasis on Moderate to Severe DD populations Must have strong knowledge of PECS Must be able to work in a fast and dynamic environment Must be able to work in a team oriented environment Must have proven organizational capabilities

Antidepressant Shows Mixed Results in Treating Alzheimer’s Patients, Study Finds

Antidepressant Shows Mixed Results in Treating Alzheimer’s Patients, Study Finds

 

 

While citalopram has been used to reduce agitation and aggression in individuals with Alzheimer’s disease (AD), a new study published in the Journal of the America Medical Association suggests that use of the drug in these patients may be increasing their health risks.
Researchers from Johns Hopkins Bayview Medical Center and the University of Rochester Medical Center randomized 186 nondepressed patients with AD to received nine weeks of psychosocial therapy plus either citalopram or placebo to evaluate the efficacy of 30mg per day of citalopram for AD-associated agitation—which affects 90% of patients with AD, according to study. Results showed that 40% of the patients receiving citalopram had improvements in agitation from baseline, compared with 26% of placebo recipients. However, the patients taking citalopram had longer QT intervals—a measure of abnormal heart functions that greatly increases the risk for heart attacks—than did the placebo group.
Constantine Lyketsos, M.D., M.H.S, coauthor and director of psychiatry at Johns Hopkins Bayview, commented in statement that he and his colleagues plan to investigate the effectiveness of lower doses of citalopram in treating AD-related agitation, a strategy that may pose less cardiovascular risk. In the meantime, Lyketsos said, the drug offers an alternative to treating agitation in individuals with AD who may be nonresponsive to nonmedication treatments.

Treating Depression May Help Improve Memory, Executive Function in Parkinson’s

 

 

 

Successful treatment of depression associated with Parkinson’s Disease may be associated with cognitive improvements, according to a report in The Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences.
Researchers in the departments of psychiatry and neurology at Robert Wood Johnson Medical School conducted a randomized, controlled trial of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) plus clinical monitoring versus clinical monitoring-only for the treatment of depression associated with Parkinson’s (dPD) from April 2007 until July 2010. Treatment was provided for 10 weeks. The CBT protocol incorporated behavioral activation, cognitive restructuring, sleep hygiene, anxiety management, and caregiver psychoeducation.
The researchers found that improvements in depression and anxiety were associated with modest gains in verbal memory and executive functioning over the 10-week treatment period and accounted for greater variance in neuropsychological outcomes at the end of treatment than other known correlates of cognitive functioning in Parkinson’s, such as disease severity, age, and education. Baseline working memory and executive skills were also associated with depression improvement over time.
“This study provides preliminary evidence to suggest that memory and executive functioning may improve after the successful psychosocial treatment of dPD,” the researchers stated. “Anxiety, a common correlate of depression, may also influence cognitive changes in PD and may be most relevant to the assessment of delayed recall…. [I]t may be beneficial for depression treatment to be initiated before cognitive remediation attempts, so that lesser cognitive deficits need to be addressed in cognitive remediation.”

JOB OPPORTUNITY ŁÓDZ POLAND

Witam serdecznie,
obecnie rekrutuję przedstawicieli handlowych do holenderskiej firmy WKK , biuro tej firmy znajduje się w Łodzi, bardzo proszę o kontakt, jeśli jest Pani/ Pan zainteresowany współpracą. Wymagane doświadczenie sprzedażowe, język angielski, wiek 25-35 lat.
Pozdrawiam
Alicja Jaworska (785418774)

SDM- absolutely recommended

Psychiatry has long been considered the medical specialty most attuned to listening to the patient. With few diagnostic laboratory or imaging tests available or other physical indicators of illness, psychiatrists have been trained to attend carefully to their patients’ histories and subjective reports of symptoms to make a diagnosis and determine the course of treatment. But the nature of the doctor-patient relationship was traditionally one-sided. Patients talked and their physicians listened, and then the doctor prescribed the treatment and the patient followed.

But now psychiatry is changing as the field of medicine adopts patient-centered care. This model of care places greater emphasis on patients’ involvement in determining the goals of treatment that are meaningful to them and the nature of their care. Meaningful goals for patients generally go beyond symptoms to include quality of life, functioning, and a sense of hope and self-efficacy. Patient-centered care isn’t just about putting the patient at the center of the care equation. Rather, it shifts the balance of authority and responsibility of the doctor-patient relationship and incorporates shared decision making (SDM) between the clinician and the patient, particularly when it comes to treatment.

SDM is defined as “a collaborative process that allows patients and their providers to make health care decisions together, taking into account the best scientific evidence available, as well as the patient’s values and preferences.” Practicing SDM requires that psychiatrists assess the patient’s interest in participating in decisions, providing information on the risks and benefits of specific treatments or approaches in an understandable format, and dialogue with patients about their choices. SDM does not mean that psychiatrists don’t make strong recommendations; rather, it means that those recommendations need to be reconciled with patients’ views and choices.